Category Archives: Cognition

Study Finds Use of Digital Devices Could Help Improve Memory Skills

Contrary to previously expressed concerns that the overuse of technology could result in the breakdown of cognitive abilities and cause “digital dementia”, research, published in Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, showed that digital devices help people to store and remember very important information. This, in turn, frees up their memory to recall additional less important things.

The study used a memory task to be played on a touchscreen digital tablet or computer. The test was undertaken by 158 volunteers aged between 18 and 71.

Participants were shown up to 12 numbered circles on the screen, and had to remember to drag some of these to the left and some to the right. The number of circles that they remembered to drag to the correct side determined their pay at the end of the experiment. One side was designated ‘high value’, meaning that remembering to drag a circle to this side was worth 10 times as much money as remembering to drag a circle to the other ‘low value’ side.

Participants performed this task 16 times. They had to use their own memory to remember on half of the trials and they were allowed to set reminders on the digital device for the other half.

The results found that participants tended to use the digital devices to store the details of the high-value circles. And, when they did so, their memory for those circles was improved by 18%. Their memory for low-value circles was also improved by 27%, even in people who had never set any reminders for low-value circles.

However, results also showed a potential cost to using reminders. When they were taken away, the participants remembered the low-value circles better than the high-value ones, showing that they had entrusted the high-value circles to their devices and then forgotten about them.

According to the authors, “we wanted to explore how storing information in a digital device could influence memory abilities. We found that when people were allowed to use an external memory, the device helped them to remember the information they had saved into it. This was hardly surprising, but we also found that the device improved people’s memory for unsaved information as well.

This was because using the device shifted the way that people used their memory to store high-importance versus low-importance information. When people had to remember by themselves, they used their memory capacity to remember the most important information. But when they could use the device, they saved high-importance information into the device and used their own memory for less important information instead.”

Dupont, D., et al. (2022) Value-based routing of delayed intentions into brain-based vs external memory stores. Journal of Experimental Psychology. doi.org/10.1037/xge0001261

A Virtual Reality Shopping Environment Could Help Evaluate Cognitive Deficits or Decline in Adults

New research published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, uses a novel virtual reality shopping task called “VStore” to measure cognition, which asks participants to take part in tests designed to mirror the real world. Researchers hope that it will be able to test for age-related cognitive deficits and future cognitive decline.

In the ‘VStore’, participants “go to the shops” to navigate a shopping scenario as a way of assessing functional cognition, as well as the thinking and processing skills needed to accomplish complex everyday activities. The immersive environment (a virtual shop) mirrored actiities encountered in everyday life and meant that participants were better able to engage brain structures that are associated with spatial navigation, such as the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, both of which can be affected in the early stages of Alzheimer disease.

The trial recruited 142 healthy individuals aged 20-79 years. Each participant was asked to “go to the shops,” first verbally recalling a list of 12 items, before being assessed for the amount of time it took to collect the items, as well as select the corresponding items on a virtual self-checkout machine, pay, and order coffee.

Cognition tests, such as those used to measure the deficits present in several neuropsychiatric disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, and depression, are traditionally time-consuming and onerous. Vstore—the technology that the researchers used in this study—is designed to overcome these limitations to provide a more accurate, engaging, and cost-effective process to explore a person’s cognitive health.

Researchers were able to establish that Vstore effectively engages a range of key neuropsychological functions simultaneously, suggesting that the functional tasks embedded in virtual reality may engage a greater range of cognitive domains than standard assessments.

Reference:
Lilla Alexandra Porffy, Mitul A. Mehta, Joel Patchitt, Celia Boussebaa, Jack Brett, Teresa D’Oliveira, Elias Mouchlianitis, Sukhi S. Shergill. A Novel Virtual Reality Assessment of Functional Cognition (VStore): Validation Study (Preprint)Journal of Medical Internet Research, 2021; DOI: 10.2196/27641